For much of modern science, since the Enlightenment, animals were generally thought to be automatons: materialist robots programmed to behave in certain ways. Rene Descartes drew a sharp distinction between thinking beings, humans, and everything else, matter. 20th Century behaviorism continued to think of animals in this way but added humans to the mix. “Mind” … Animal Minds: puzzling over Puppies and Parrots
“Republic of Silence,” by Jean-Paul Sartre Jean-Paul Sartre came to define post-war Existentialism. In this prominent editorial published shortly after the occupation ended, Sartre articulates both the context to his views and the suggestion that everyday life may present even more challenges to real “Existential Choice.” After watching this short video, read the essay and … Can We be Authentic in Everyday Life?