Snooping Around Snopes: Assessing Fake News

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Area: History and Social Studies, Other Areas
Grade Level: High School & Beyond, Middle School
Topics: Epistemology, Fake News/Alternative Facts, Literacy (Media/Information), Media (News/Social), Skepticism, Truth
Estimated Time Necessary: 2 hours or 2 class periods

Lesson Plan

To critically examine news
Students will gain tools for understanding how to distinguish "fake news" from more legitimate news, to think critically about all news and media, and to explore the philosophical implications of our relationship to news.
To examine and chart the features of fake news' stories by themselves
To assess how Snopes itself assesses fake news through the lens of the principals of Sagan's article
To assess those stories using the skeptical tools and strategies that Sagan offers

This lesson revolves around reading and discussing Carl Sagan’s “The Fine Art of Baloney Detection” and then sending students to to explore the large archive of hoaxes, crazes and fake news stories.

Website Resource for Fact-Checking has become an indispensable and entertaining site for assessing the status of the urban legends and fake news stories that fascinate us.

Example: Any teacher or parent of high school students in the early fall of 2016 had to cope with a short but intense spike in anxiety about scary murderous clowns marauding through North American neighborhoods.  The craze about clowns raged for a week or so and passed quickly.  Snopes was on top of the clown craze, dismissing most of the flurry of reports as hoaxes or fake news.  Here is their assessment of a report from Canada from the Global Sun. Interestingly, the clown craze anticipated the fake news mania that would strike the US a few weeks later as the 2016 Presidential election gained steam in late October and early November.

Homework Assignment (prior to class #1)

You might assign the following work a few days ahead of time. As long as students have access to a computer, they should be able to do it.

  1. Read “The Fine Art of Baloney Detection” carefully.
  2. Spend twenty minutes exploring and select two fake news stories of your choice. catalogues these stories, and prominently displays trending stories. Select two stories that appeal to you. Please read both stories and compare them side by side.  Analyze what common elements you see in these two fake news stories.  You should use’s own analyses to help you; pay attention to what says. Take notes about your findings.
  3. Please come prepared to class with the notes.


Class#1 (50- 60 minutes)

  • Open up a discussion of Sagan’s article.  Ask students to:
    • Get to the heart of what Sagan is arguing.
    • Discuss some of the examples that Sagan adduces.
  • Pair up students and discuss the tools in the kit for “skeptical thinking” (in the second half of Sagan’s essay), and rank the top three most useful of those tools. They should discuss this ranking in pairs and write down their responses.
  • Have pairs to share their findings.  Discuss as a class.
  • Finish up your first class by sending students back to work in pairs.  Have them prepare a short report on: a) what kinds of fake news stories they found; b) how analyzed those fake stories and how these analyses accord with Carl Sagan’s ideas; c) how they utilized Sagan’s ideas to analyze the fake news stories.


Class #2 (50-60 minutes)

  • Ask students to reconvene as pairs to prepare a short informal presentation on what they found.
  • Pairs should present their findings.
  • You might compile your findings on the board or in a shared document.
  • Discuss and connect. Steer the discussion toward the larger philosophical implications of living in a world saturated by information and endless news stories, “fake” and “real”.



Discussion Questions

  • Why does "fake news" work? What features of "fake news" make it appealing?
  • Is all news biased?
  • Our 21st-century existence is saturated with information and media that not only come from a wide range of perspectives but are often untrue or sensationalized. Does that mean that we have no access to the truth?
  • Are we capable of thinking outside of the culture we live in?
  • What is the relationship of truth to power?
  • "Fake news" has ostensibly been successful in duping us. What does this tendency to fall prey to fake news say about our human nature?


This lesson plan was created for PLATO by: William Mottolese, Sacred Heart Greenwich.

This work is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

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