Nagel’s What is it like to be a bat?

Print Friendly, PDF & Email
Area: Other Areas
Grade Level: High School & Beyond, Middle School, Primary/Elementary School
Topics: Consciousness, Epistemology, Identity, Mind, Self/Personhood, Subjectivity/Objectivity, Truth/Perception
Estimated Time Necessary: 30 minutes

Lesson Plan

This lesson challenges learners to explore and discuss consciousness which tends to be subjective. Therefore, this leads students to learn the differentiation between subjectivity and objectivity.

In his article, “What is it like to be a bat?” Thomas Nagel argues that there are facts about conscious experience that are subjective and can only be known from that subjective perspective. Even if we know all the objective facts about bats, we may not actually know what it would really be like to be a bat. We might be able to imagine what it would be like to hang upside down, fly through the night, or use echolocation to track prey, but Nagel argues that we really couldn’t know what a bat’s experience is really like.

Start off with this simple question/s (with an example of a cat instead of a bat):

What is it like to be a cat? Imagine that you are a cat. What would you do? What would you feel? (If you’re teaching elementary school, you can even ask them to act like a cat.)

(Allow students to respond.)

Now, you have told us some of the things you would do and how you would feel if you were in the cat’s shoes, but do you really know what it is like to be a cat? Have you smelled catnip? Do you get excited when you smell catnip? We know how excited a cat gets when it smells catnip, but we don’t know really how it feels. Even though we know lots of things about cats, we don’t have the same experience; so can we really know the experience of another?

(Allow students to respond, and see what questions arise.)

Some follow-up questions may include:

What is it like to be a fish? Or an ant? Can we really know how another being thinks or feels?

How do we know whether a computer (Or a plant or a rock) is conscious? And if they are conscious, can we know what it is like?

How do we know that the person sitting next to you is conscious? How do we know that the person next to you sees the sky as the same color of blue, or that a lemon tastes sour to them; could someone else see the same sky as “green” and that the same lemon tastes sweet?



This lesson plan was created for PLATO by: Chris.

This work is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

If you would like to change or adapt any of PLATO's work for public use, please feel free to contact us for permission at